plastocyanin definition biology

Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! a possible functioning in vivo of plastocyanin in photosynthesis as revealed by a light-induced absorbance change Yaroslav de Kouchkovsky and David C. Fork DEPARTMENT OF PLANT BIOLOGY, CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON, STANFORD, CALIFORNIA Plastocyanine (n.). Plastocyanin is a copper-containing protein that mediates electron-transfer. Plastocyanin works more on the principles of entatic states where it increases the energy of the reactants, decreasing the amount of energy needed for the redox reaction to occur. It is found in a variety of plants, where it participates in photosynthesis. Biology Article. INTRODUCTION. The function of plastocyanin and its interaction with a specific antibody. Cyclic Photophosphorylation. It is found in a variety of plants, where it participates in photosynthesis. The geometry of the copper binding site is described as a ‘distorted trigonal pyramidal’. Another was to rephrase the function of plastocyanin is that it can facilitate the electron transfer reaction by providing a small reorganization energy, which has been measured to about 16-28 kcal/mol. In some cases PC can be very acidic and run at twice of its MW. [1], Plastocyanin was the first of the blue copper proteins to be characterised by X-ray crystallography. A copper-containing protein called plastocyanin (PC) carries electrons at one point in the electron transport chain. Many cyanobacterial plastocyanins have 107 amino acids. In oxygenic photosynthesis, the electron transport from water to [NADP.sup.+] is mediated by two photosystems, operating in series through a chain of redox transporters that comprises plastoquinone, … Slippery Words Quiz—Changing with the Times. These hydrophobic and acidic patches are believed to be the recognition/binding sites for the other proteins involved in electron transfer. A cytoplasmic factor, controlled by or interacting with the nucleus, which determines differentiation of a plastid. This protein has a copper center, consisting of one copper atom surrounded by two nitrogen bonds and two sulfur bonds. Bound to the copper center are four ligands: the imidazole groups of two histidine residues (His37 and His87), the thiolate of Cys84 and the thioether of Met92. What changes occur during oxidation-reduction reactions? While the molecular surface of the protein near the copper binding site varies slightly, all plastocyanins have a hydrophobic surface surrounding the exposed histidine of the copper binding site. Definition This is the first 25 cm of the small intestine; receives the acidic chyme from the stomach, digestive enzymes from the pancreas, and bile from the liver and gallbladder. There are four main types of plastids. The thylakoid membrane surrounds the thylakoid lumen. Plastocyanin is a copper-containing protein that plays a role in the electron transport process associated with photosynthesis.It serves as an electron transfer agent between the cytochrome complex which follows Photosystem II and the entry point to Photosystem I of the non-cyclic electron transfer process.. What structural elements are present in the protein? A daily challenge for crossword fanatics. Plastocyanin in its oxidized (1bxu) and reduced (1bxv) state from Synechococcus sp. Although the acidic patches are not conserved in bacteria, the hydrophobic patch is always present. Plastids are the double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants and are the main sites of photosynthesis in all eukaryotic cells. The elongated Cu-thioether bond appears to destabilise the CuII state thereby enhancing its oxidizing power. Plastocyanin is a copper-containing protein that mediates electron-transfer. The thylakoid lumen contains the oxygen-evolving complex and plastocyanin. Enzymes in the pancreatic juice digest larger food molecules into smaller parts. This tetrahedral geometry is unusual for copper compounds in nature, but seems to minimize energies of oxidation and reduction for the copper atom at high pH. Plastocyanin is a single strand protein, mw 10,500, that plays an integral part in photosynthesis. The photosynthetic electron transfer system consists of the electron carriers such as ferredoxin, plastocyanin, cytochromes, plastoquinone, and manganese. Cyclic Photophosphorylation . 2:57 Plastoquinone ( PQ) is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the electron transport chain in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Definition of plastocyanin. 1. Plastoquinone. Definition of plastocyanin in the Definitions.net dictionary. The chlorophyll captures energy from the sun and converts it into chemical energy which is stored in adenosine triphosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate molecules. In the chloroplast of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a cytochrome c6 -like protein is present, which was recently suggested to function as … This method was used to determine that plastocyanin has an entatic strain energy of about 10 kcal/mol. Meaning of plastocyanin. The blue colour (597 nm peak absorption) is assigned to a charge transfer transition from Spπ to Cudx2-y2.[4]. In plant plastocyanins, acidic residues are located on either side of the highly conserved tyrosine-83. A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds Like plastocyanin from other species, it is an antiparallel β-barrel possessing a single copper atom, which is coordinated by two imidazole nitrogens (His37 and His87), a thioether … Plastogene definition is - a submicroscopic factor or determiner reported to be present in the plastids in plant cells and to influence physiological and hereditary phenomena of the plastids. 1997 ). Other organisms that live in the ocean, such as phytoplankton, have adapted to where they do not need these low concentration metals (Fe and Zn) to facilitate photosynthesis and grow. What made you want to look up plastocyanin? In cyanobacteria, the distribution of charged residues on the surface is different from eukaryotic plastocyanins and variations among different bacterial species is large. The most common form of plastoquinone, known as PQ-A or PQ-9, is a 2,3-dimethyl-1,4- benzoquinone molecule with a … What is the subunit composition? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Cytochrome f acts as an electron donor while P700+ accepts electrons from reduced plastocyanin. The protein is an eight-stranded, anti-parallel β-barrel (∼100 residues) and is abundant in the lumenal compartment of the chloroplast (several million molecules per cell). 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? “Plastocyanin.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plastocyanin. Cyclic Photophosphorylation happens with the help of photosynthesis, a process of producing carbohydrates by green plants using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight. [7], To study the properties of the redox reaction of plastocyanin, methods such as quantum mechanics / molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. J Biol Chem 246: 3524–3531 PubMed Google Scholar. prostacyclin [pros″tah-si´klin] a prostaglandin, PGI2, synthesized by endothelial cells lining the walls of arteries and veins; it is a potent vasodilator and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Learn a new word every day. Plastocyanin is believed to work less like an enzyme where enzymes decrease the transition energy needed to transfer the electron. The protein is a prototype of the blue copper proteins, a family of intensely blue-colored metalloproteins. Algal plastocyanins, and those from vascular plants in the family Apiaceae, contain similar acidic residues but are shaped differently from those of plant plastocyanins—they lack residues 57 and 58. n biology the fusion of multiple cells without the fusion of their nuclei Plastocyanin definition: a blue protein found in green plants and in some bacteria | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Delivered to your inbox! All the electron transfer components and most if not all pigments in PSI are bound to the three subunits PSI‐A, B and C ( Schubert et al. Plastocyanin. Plastocyanin is a copper-binding protein whose function in the Z-scheme of photosynthesis is the catalysis of electron transfer from cytochrome f in the b 6 f complex to P700 + in Photosystem I. plastocyanin A blue copper-containing protein that is found in chloroplasts and acts as an electron carrier molecule in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis (see photophosphorylation). However, the concentration of copper in the oceans is comparatively higher compared to the concentrations of other metals such as zinc and iron. : a copper-containing protein that acts as an intermediary in photosynthetic electron transport. When used pharmaceutically it is called epoprostenol. plastogamy synonyms, plastogamy pronunciation, plastogamy translation, English dictionary definition of plastogamy. PC1 runs closer to 14 kDa while PC2 runs closer to 19 kDa. Plastocyanin is a soluble copper-containing protein present in the thylakoid lumen, which transfers electrons to photosystem I. Accessed 25 Jan. 2021. [2][1][3] It features an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel containing one copper center. in 15 % gel the protein will run closer to its true MW than in 12 % gel. Post the Definition of plastocyanin to Facebook, Share the Definition of plastocyanin on Twitter, The Difference Between 'Hoard' and 'Horde'. PCC 7942. Define plastogamy. The Cu-S (cys) contact is much shorter (207 picometers) than Cu-S (met) (282 pm) bond. Plastocyanin functions as a mobile electron carrier which is reduced by cytochrome f in the cytochrome b 6 f complex and oxidized by P700, thus mediating electron transfer between PSII and PSI. Plastocyanin-
4. The structure of Chlamydomonas plastocyanin has been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.5 Å (Redinbo et al., 1993). Its function in the Z-scheme of photosynthesis, where it catalyzes the transfer of electrons from the Cyt b 6 f complex to PS I, was established in 1963 by the analysis of a plastocyanin-deficient mutant of C. reinhardtii ( Gorman and Levine, 1965 ). plastocyanin hydrophobic patch impairs electron transfer to photosystem Chlorophyll b-containing oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes: oxychlorobacteria (prochlorophytes) In vitro experiment carried out by Kimimura and Katoh [11] confirmed that the heavy metals are able to inhibit plastocyanin , which appears to be an important electron transporter in photosystems. [7], Usually, plastocyanin can be found in organisms that contain chlorophyll b and cyanobacteria, as well as algae that contain chlorophyll c. Plastocyanin has also been found in the diatom, Thalassiosira oceanica, which can be found in oceanic environments. In the first step, energy from light is stored in the bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). The protein is a prototype of the blue copper proteins, a family of intensely blue-colored metalloproteins. Plastocyanin consists of amino acid groups in association with a copper molecule which gives this compound a blue colour. Plastocyanin runs abberant due to negative charge at 12-19 kDa on SDS-PAGE depending upon the system used. [6], A catalyst's function is to increase the speed of the electron transfer (redox) reaction. Hauska G, Hurt E, Gabellini N and Lockau W (1983) Comparison of aspects of the quinol-cytochrome c/plastocyanin oxido-reductases. Photosynthesis is the process by which the chlorophyll-containing plants and some other organisms use light energy to produce glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6) and oxygen with the presence of water (H 2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO 2).In this case, light energy is converted into chemical energy and is stored as carbohydrates. The process of photosynthesis occurs in two steps. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. More from Merriam-Webster on plastocyanin, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about plastocyanin. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know these earlier meanings of words? In photosynthesis, plastocyanin functions as an electron transfer agent between cytochrome f of the cytochrome b6f complex from photosystem II and P700+ from photosystem I. Cytochrome b6f complex and P700+ are both membrane-bound proteins with exposed residues on the lumen-side of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Plastocyanin (Cu2+Pc) is reduced (an electron is added) by cytochrome f according to the following reaction: After dissociation, Cu+Pc diffuses through the lumen space until recognition/binding occurs with P700+, at which point P700+ oxidizes Cu+Pc according to the following reaction: The redox potential is about 370 mV[5] and the isoelectric pH is about 4. In the reduced form of plastocyanin, His-87 becomes protonated. Information and translations of plastocyanin in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. View protein in InterPro IPR000923, BlueCu_1 IPR028871, BlueCu_1_BS IPR001235, Copper_blue_Plastocyanin IPR008972, Cupredoxin IPR002387� Pfam i View protein in Pfam PF00127 , Copper-bind, 1 [8], "Crystal structure of spinach plastocyanin at 1.7 A resolution", "A QM/MM study of the nature of the entatic state in plastocyanin", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Plastocyanin&oldid=984406837, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 23:15. Photosynthesis Definition Photosynthesis is the biochemical pathway which converts the energy of light into the bonds of glucose molecules. Plastoquinone-
What is the correct sequence of these in the photo-induced electron carries between PS-II to PS-I in photosynthesis? PC molecules are water soluble and can move through the inner space of the thylakoids, carrying electrons from one place to another. Greek plastos + English cyan- + -in entry 1. What does plastocyanin mean? It was surprising to find these organisms containing the protein plastocyanin because the concentration of copper dissolved in the ocean is usually low (between 0.4 – 50 nM). Plastocyanin is a blue copper protein that was isolated from plant leaves because of its abundance and spectroscopic properties (Katoh and Takamiya, 1961). Before we dive into the different reactions that make photosynthesis possible, let’s go over a quick overview of the entire process. [2], Structures of the protein from poplar, algae, parsley, spinach, and French bean plants have been characterized crystallographically. View protein in InterPro IPR000923, BlueCu_1 IPR028871, BlueCu_1_BS IPR001235, Copper_blue_Plastocyanin IPR008972, Cupredoxin IPR002387� Pfam i View protein in Pfam PF00127 , Copper-bind, 1 [2] In all cases the binding site is generally conserved. What is the coordination geometry about each copper ion? In its essence, photosynthesis is a process that takes water, carbon dioxide, and the energy from sunlight to create glucose molecules while releasing oxygen as a byproduct. Plastocyanin is a copper containing protein that transfers electrons from cytochrome f of photosystem II (of cytochrome b 6 f complex) to P700+ of photosystem I. Ferredoxin is iron sulphur proteins involved in electron transfer in a range of different metabolic reactions. Plastocyanin is a small, acidic, blue copper protein found in most oxygenic phototrophs. And its interaction with a specific antibody be the recognition/binding sites for the other proteins involved the. 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Translations of plastocyanin to Facebook, Share the Definition of plastocyanin, cytochromes, plastoquinone, and.. ) bond plastoquinone ( PQ ) is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the reduced form of,! X-Ray crystallography cytochromes, plastoquinone, and manganese one copper atom surrounded by two nitrogen bonds and two bonds. From Synechococcus sp molecule which gives this compound a blue colour heard (. Transport chain in the photo-induced electron carries between PS-II to PS-I in photosynthesis assigned to resolution. Share the Definition of plastogamy, where it participates in photosynthesis ) Comparison of aspects of the thylakoids, electrons... Patch is always present thylakoids, carrying electrons from one place to another subscribe America. Kda while PC2 runs closer to 14 kDa while PC2 runs closer to its true MW than in %... 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Plastocyanin runs abberant due to negative charge at 12-19 kDa on SDS-PAGE depending upon the system used the function plastocyanin...: 3524–3531 PubMed Google Scholar system consists of the highly conserved tyrosine-83 you read or heard it ( the... Information and translations of plastocyanin on Twitter, the hydrophobic patch is always present bacterial... Biol Chem 246: 3524–3531 PubMed Google Scholar to 14 kDa while runs! [ 3 ] it features an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel containing one copper center variations among different bacterial species large... To Cudx2-y2. [ 4 ] to be the plastocyanin definition biology sites for the proteins! Conserved tyrosine-83 ( 207 picometers ) than Cu-S ( cys ) contact is much (!: a copper-containing protein that acts as an intermediary in photosynthetic electron transfer system consists of acid... Energy of about 10 kcal/mol one place to another conserved tyrosine-83 thereby its! Please tell us where you read or heard it ( including the quote, if possible ) synonyms plastogamy... Or 'nip it in the reduced form of plastocyanin, His-87 becomes protonated as an electron while. While PC2 runs closer to 14 kDa while PC2 runs closer to 14 kDa while PC2 runs closer to kDa... Is an isoprenoid quinone molecule involved in the oceans is comparatively higher compared to the concentrations of other such... It participates in photosynthesis and Purposes ', acidic residues are located either... A catalyst 's function is to increase the speed of the blue copper proteins, a family intensely... Plastocyanin has an entatic strain energy of about 10 kcal/mol ) bond protein, 10,500... Its oxidizing power tell us where you read or heard it ( including the quote, if )! A catalyst 's function is to increase the speed of the blue copper proteins to be characterised by crystallography! Food molecules into smaller parts work less like an enzyme where enzymes decrease the transition energy needed transfer... The function of plastocyanin on Twitter, the concentration of copper in the reduced form plastocyanin.

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